Wednesday, September 12, 2007

Getty's Self-Immolation

Many in the photo industry are (rightly) up in arms over Getty's self-destructive behavior, plummeting what from what amounts to a $900 image license of their RM imagery (when you add up all the commercial uses and 10 year term) down to $49, or what amounts to a 95% discount fire sale price on all their images, 500kb or less.

Why did they do this? What could possibly cause them to seemingly slash their own throat?

(Continued after the Jump)

When Getty acquired iStockphoto, JDK famously said "If someone’s going to cannibalize your business, better it be one of your other businesses,”. Now, JDK has taken things one step further, authorizing a 95% firesale, which is tantamount to eating one's own, or self-destruction. You pick one, either way, it's going to get fugly.

However, the question remains - why? Why take such drastic measures? When GYI aquired iStockphoto, some assumed that they would move the best images, and also the best selling images, from RF to RM, as well as introducing the RF producers into a whole new world of revenue from their images, vis-a-vis higher dollars. Yet, that idea, which would have been a wise move, never materialized.

While industry leaders are circling the wagons and calling on Getty to revisit their pricing structure, (and with the genie out of the bottle, it's unlikely it'll be undone), Getty is keeping their reasons close to the vest.

Their publically stated reason is that designers have been budgeting $50 a photo for web use, and there may be some cases where this is the case, to be sure. Yet, there are rumors out there that this price-slashing is a preemptive move to reposition themselves prior to a major announcement of a new competitor to Getty. One that will make iStockphoto's licensing fees look expensive by comparison, let alone the RM collections of Getty Images. Certainly, Getty's nearest competitors, Corbis, and Jupiter Media are operating in a business-as-usual mode, however, something is amiss. We have made inquiries to determine the validity of the rumors. When we have either official confirmation, or unofficial yet substantiated confirmation from our sources, we'll have more to report at that time.

Let's look, however, at what the rumor isn't. It's almost certainly not a positioning for aquisition. Were that the case, a wholesale drop in pricing of the content would drastically diminish the valuation of the company, just prior to any potential acquisition. Heck, it does that to net revenues regardless of the reason.

For now, we'll remain watching and waiting.
Full Disclosure: I do not hold, and have not in the past held, GYI stock, nor those of any of it's competitors, nor do I have any plans to engage in any investment activity as it regards GYI, or it's competitors. While I've been critical of them in the past, I've not disclosed these facts, and I feel it's important to make that point clear.
Please post your comments by clicking the link below. If you've got questions, please pose them in our Photo Business Forum Flickr Group Discussion Threads.

7 comments:

Anonymous said...

Check out some industry responses here at Stockasylum:

http://tinyurl.com/2puys8

Note Steve Pigeon's (Masterfile CEO) comments:

"Ironically, Masterfile was considering a similar course of action months ago but we figured it would be next to impossible to get all our major RF suppliers onside. Getty solved that for us in one fell swoop and we won't be far behind. I like those guys."

I hear there's good money in plumbing... or plastering maybe...

Anonymous said...

Industry Groups in an uproar.

*****************************

Leading Photographer Groups Call on Getty Images to Remove Rights Managed Collections from new $49 "Web Use" License

Heavy discounting of premium stock imagery risks future revenue potential from major digital uses, as budgets shift from print to online.

Last week, Getty Images announced a new $49 "web use" license for images from all of its collections, including its highest quality Rights Managed collections. With this move, Getty has effectively slashed the value of commercial web use licenses by up to 96% off their established rates for Rights Managed photography.

In a coordinated response, leading trade associations representing over 12,000 professional photographers have called upon Getty Images to remove all Rights Managed imagery (including their Rights Ready brands) from this new license product.

The Stock Artists Alliance (SAA), the American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP), the U.K. Association of Photographers (AOP), Advertising Photographers of America (APA), Editorial Photographers (EP), and the Canadian Association of Photographers (CAPIC) represent top advertising and editorial assignment photographers and thousands of stock photographers- including many Getty contributors.

Their shared concern is that this extreme competitive response by Getty Images presents huge risks to the image licensing business, and threatens the livelihoods not only of Getty contributors but of professional photographers industry-wide.

In a joint letter sent to Getty Images CEO Jonathan Klein today, the associations have urged the company to reconsider this plan and remove the Rights Managed collections from the $49 license scheme. "Offering your very best imagery at heavily discounted prices," they contend, "may well increase volume, but it also risks undermining Getty's core licensing business-as well as the businesses of the independent contributing photographers who create and own the majority of imagery in your RM collections."

Furthermore, the letter states, "As the market leader, Getty's actions affect the entire industry. We therefore expect that your action of devaluing digital usage risks the long-term earning potential from image licensing, whether it be stock or commissioned."

Anticipated consequences of this dramatic move, they suggest, include:

1. Loss of high-value digital license revenue.
Getty is unnecessarily giving up money from commercial and high-end advertising customers willing to pay premium prices for the most exclusive imagery. Now these same customers are rapidly shifting their large media budgets from print to the web as the internet emerges as their primary marketing platform. Spending for web advertising by these customers can easily rival traditional media budgets with many spending hundreds of thousands of dollars on relatively small media buys. This $49 deal gives away valuable rights for minimal prices that will not be replaced by increased volume for this kind of commercial usage.

2. Devaluation of RM licensing.
Flat-rate license fees run counter to the Rights Managed premise that price and value are commensurate with usage. The $49 deal lumps together buyers for global online ad campaigns with small mom-and-pop shops and local web uses. Flat-rate unit pricing is already being offered in Royalty Free products, and this new product will offer value-conscious customers access to quality RF imagery. There's no need to extend it in RM. Offering the very best images at a bargain price point communicates to customers that all images, even the very best and most creative, are all worth the same.

3. Erosion of prices across the board.
The devaluation of web usage prices will lead to devaluing print and outdoor usage that will pave the way to further steep price cuts across all types of licenses. Once customers can obtain a major use license of an RM image at this cost, they will likely question the validity of being charged significantly higher rates for other uses.

4. Reduced return for photographers.
Lower per-image returns for photographers make it more difficult to produce the highly creative images that form the core of creative RM stock collections. These images cannot be produced in volume, and photographers are already feeling the impact of reduced revenues. This move further strains the viability of independent photographers' businesses, and will result in less fresh imagery available for customers.

5. Reduced recovery value for images.
The offering by the world's largest stock image supplier of all their images across the board at a $49 price point will have a serious impact on the valuation of claims in the courts for copyright infringement and lost/damaged originals. It also undermines the proposition that each image is unique and has to be valued on its own merits. Infringements of stock images are already at crisis levels-especially for web and digital uses. We are alarmed that a consequence of the low value established for web uses will dampen efforts to enforce copyrights and recover otherwise lost revenues.

Evolution is Needed
There is no doubt that stock licensing and pricing models must evolve to address the needs of a diversified marketplace of new media users, which include major stock image users, as well as new kinds of customers. An essential part of this evolution must include logical and consistent licensing and pricing structures that make sense to the customer, and that preserve the value of high quality professional imagery.

In closing, the association letter states: "We are eager to work with Getty Images and other leaders in the industry to find ways to evolve image licensing that address the changing needs of new media customers, and which leverage the distinctive value associated with Rights Managed imagery in a changing marketplace. We have a mutual interest in growing our image licensing businesses but respectfully contend that we must explore better ways to do so, which do not risk the value of what we have created."

SAA president Roy Hsu, an Advertising Art Director specializing in digital media and stock photographer, explains: "Digital advertising is currently the fastest growing segment and will become the key source of high end advertising within the next few years. Internet based campaigns now can define brand campaigns and make headlines on their own, which used to be reserved by print and broadcast. Media budgets for online are now comparable and sometimes higher than those of traditional print media. This pricing scheme oversimplifies a complex industry by mixing the high and low end users together, and the discounting these digital uses is in effect giving up on the high-end customer."

Coordinated Action by Photographer Associations
This is the latest example of coordinated advocacy initiatives by leading photographer trade associations who are increasingly working together to address issues of common concern to their members. They have also joined together as members of the PLUS, The Picture Licensing Universal System; and the Imagery Alliance, a diverse coalition of industry stakeholders formed to respond to proposed "orphan works" legislation, and to champion the need for industry licensing and metadata standards, and copyright education.
Background Information
About two weeks ago, Getty Images began offering a $49 "web-resolution" license across all of its collections, including Rights Managed (RM) and Rights Ready (RR), as well as Royalty Free. For $49, Getty will now license an RM image for digital use (website, web banner ad, email, mobile device or multimedia project) for one year. For up to ten years, an RR image can be used for any one project across all digital and web media.

The $49 license applies to Getty’s exclusive ”house” brands as well as third party collections. So, it includes the premium RM imagery presented in the Stone, Stone+, Taxi and Photonica collections as well as the RM images moved into the RR model over the past year in the TIB, Iconica and Riser collections. It will also affect the images in the Photographer’s Choice RM and RR collections for which contributors pay a participation fee. Only two collections are excluded -- Image Source (RF) and the Arnold Newman Collection (RM) along with selected editorial images.

The price point varies worldwide. It is 49 EUROS (around $70) and £39 GBP (around $100).

Getty’s press release describes the product as offering customers “access the entire breadth and depth of its collections -- even the premium collections -- for their online media and advertising campaigns.” Jonathan Klein, Getty Images’ CEO states that "customers who once considered alternative sources of imagery for use in their online media and advertising campaigns, no longer need to sacrifice the quality of imagery.”

By “alternative sources,” Mr. Klein is presumably referring to microstock (such as iStock which Getty owns) and RF subscription products. Last week, Getty also launched Valueline, a brand which offers RF images starting at $19. This product was soft launched two weeks ago, with only Royalty Free ecommerce enabled. Getty reports that RM and RR pricing will be online by late September, with the license available across all collections by calling Getty Sales.

On site promotions began last week with various taglines such as “All you need is a little pocket change” and “Wipe the drool from your mouth. Now you can license even rights-managed quality images for a flat rate of $49 each.”
Please let Getty Images hear from you!

Key contacts are:

Jonathan Klein, Getty Images CEO - jonathan.klein@gettyimages.com
Paul Banwell, Getty Images Artists Relations - paul.banwell@gettyimages.com
APA greatly appreciates SAA's efforts to arm us all with as much information as possible.

jasphoto said...

I Get IT! They are trying to make there stock look expensive. You see a GYI share is about the same as "BUYING" a photo - at this rate hopefully their stock will look cheap to an iStock Photo.

Anonymous said...

GYI going to $6. Bank on it.

http://stockcharts.com/webcgi/Pnf.asp?S=GYI&N=A&C=2

信次 said...

情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,美國aneros,rudeboy,英國rudeboy,英國Rocksoff,德國Fun Factory,Fun Factory,英國甜筒造型按摩座,甜筒造型按摩座,英國Rock Chic ,瑞典 Lelo ,英國Emotional Bliss,英國 E.B,荷蘭 Natural Contours,荷蘭 N C,美國 OhMiBod,美國 OMB,Naughti Nano ,音樂按摩棒,ipod按摩棒,美國 The Screaming O,美國TSO,美國TOPCO,美國Doc Johnson,美國CA Exotic,美國CEN,美國Nasstoy,美國Tonguejoy,英國Je Joue,美國Pipe Dream,美國California Exotic,美國NassToys,美國Vibropod,美國Penthouse,仿真按摩棒,矽膠按摩棒,猛男倒模,真人倒模,仿真倒模,PJUR,Zestra,適趣液,穿戴套具,日本NPG,雙頭龍,FANCARNAL,日本NIPPORI,日本GEL,日本Aqua Style,美國WET,費洛蒙,費洛蒙香水,仿真名器,av女優,打炮,做愛,性愛,口交,吹喇叭,肛交,魔女訓練大師,無線跳蛋,有線跳蛋,震動棒,震動保險套,震動套,TOY-情趣用品,情趣用品網,情趣購物網,成人用品網,情趣用品討論,成人購物網,鎖精套,鎖精環,持久環,持久套,拉珠,逼真按摩棒,名器,超名器,逼真老二,電動自慰,自慰,打手槍,仿真女郎,SM道具,SM,性感內褲,仿真按摩棒,pornograph,hunter系列,h動畫,成人動畫,成人卡通,情色動畫,情色卡通,色情動畫,色情卡通,無修正,禁斷,人妻,極悪調教,姦淫,近親相姦,顏射,盜攝,偷拍,本土自拍,素人自拍,公園露出,街道露出,野外露出,誘姦,迷姦,輪姦,凌辱,痴漢,痴女,素人娘,中出,巨乳,調教,潮吹,av,a片,成人影片,成人影音,線上影片,成人光碟,成人無碼,成人dvd,情色影音,情色影片,情色dvd,情色光碟,航空版,薄碼,色情dvd,色情影音,色情光碟,線上A片,免費A片,A片下載,成人電影,色情電影,TOKYO HOT,SKY ANGEL,一本道,SOD,S1,ALICE JAPAN,皇冠系列,老虎系列,東京熱,亞熱,武士系列,新潮館,情趣用品,約定金生,約定金生,情趣,情趣商品,約定金生,情趣網站,跳蛋, 約定金生,按摩棒,充氣娃娃,約定金生,自慰套,G點,性感內衣,約定金生,情趣內衣,約定金生,角色扮演,生日禮物,生日精品,約定金生,自慰,打手槍,約定金生,潮吹,高潮,後庭,約定金生,情色論譠,影片下載,約定金生,遊戲下載,手機鈴聲,約定金生,音樂下載, 約定金生,約定金生,開獎號碼,統一發票號碼,夜市,統一發票對獎,保險套, 約定金生,約定金生,做愛,約定金生,減肥,美容,瘦身,約定金生,當舖,軟體下載,汽車,機車, 約定金生,手機,來電答鈴, 約定金生,週年慶,美食,約定金生,徵信社,網頁設計,網站設計, 約定金生,室內設計, 約定金生,靈異照片,約定金生,同志,約定金生,聊天室,運動彩券,大樂透,約定金生,威力彩,搬家公司,除蟲,偷拍,自拍, 約定金生,無名破解,av女優, 約定金生,小說,約定金生,民宿,大樂透開獎號碼,大樂透中獎號碼,威力彩開獎號碼,約定金生,討論區,痴漢,懷孕, 約定金生,約定金生,美女交友,約定金生,交友,日本av,日本,機票, 約定金生,香水,股市, 約定金生,股市行情, 股市分析,租房子,成人影片,約定金生,免費影片,醫學美容, 約定金生,免費算命,算命,約定金生,姓名配對,姓名學,約定金生,姓名學免費,遊戲, 約定金生,好玩遊戲,好玩遊戲區,約定金生,線上遊戲,新遊戲,漫畫,約定金生,線上漫畫,動畫,成人圖片, 約定金生,桌布,桌布下載,電視節目表, 約定金生,線上電視,約定金生,線上a片,約定金生,線上掃毒,線上翻譯,購物車,約定金生,身分證製造機,身分證產生器,手機,二手車,中古車, 約定金生,約定金生,法拍屋,約定金生,歌詞,音樂,音樂網,火車,房屋,情趣用品,約定金生,情趣,情趣商品,情趣網站,跳蛋,約定金生,按摩棒,充氣娃娃,自慰套, 約定金生, G點,性感內衣,約定金生,情趣內衣,約定金生,角色扮演,生日禮物,精品,禮品,約定金生,自慰,打手槍,潮吹,高潮,約定金生,後庭,情色論譠,約定金生,影片下載,約定金生,遊戲下載,手機鈴聲,音樂下載,開獎號碼,統一發票,夜市,保險套,做愛,約定金生,減肥,美容,瘦身,當舖,約定金生,軟體下載,約定金生,汽車,機車,手機,來電答鈴,約定金生,週年慶,美食,徵信社,網頁設計,網站設計,室內設計,靈異照片, 約定金生,同志,聊天室,約定金生,運動彩券,,大樂透,約定金生,威力彩,搬家公司,除蟲,偷拍,自拍, 約定金生,無名破解, av女優,小說,民宿,約定金生,大樂透開獎號碼,大樂透中獎號碼,威力彩開獎號碼,討論區,痴漢, 約定金生,懷孕,約定金生,美女交友,約定金生,交友,日本av ,日本,機票, 約定金生,香水,股市, 約定金生,股市行情,股市分析,租房子,約定金生,成人影片,免費影片,醫學美容,免費算命,算命, 約定金生,姓名配對,姓名學, 約定金生,姓名學免費,遊戲,約定金生,好玩遊戲,約定金生,好玩遊戲區,線上遊戲,新遊戲,漫畫,線上漫畫,動畫,成人圖片,桌布,約定金生,桌布下載,電視節目表,線上電視, 約定金生,線上a片,線上a片,線上翻譯, 約定金生,購物車,身分證製造機,約定金生,身分證產生器,手機,二手車,中古車,法拍屋,歌詞,音樂,音樂網, 約定金生,借錢,房屋,街頭籃球,找工作,旅行社,約定金生,六合彩,整型,水噹噹,貸款,貸款,信用貸款,宜蘭民宿,花蓮民宿,未婚聯誼,網路購物,珠海,下川島,常平,珠海,澳門機票,香港機票,婚友,婚友社,未婚聯誼,交友,婚友,婚友社,單身聯誼,未婚聯誼,未婚聯誼,婚友社,婚友,婚友社,單身聯誼,婚友,未婚聯誼,婚友社,未婚聯誼,單身聯誼,單身聯誼,婚友,單身聯誼,未婚聯誼,婚友,交友,交友,婚友社,婚友社,婚友社,大陸新娘,大陸新娘,大陸新娘,越南新娘,越南新娘,外籍新娘,外籍新娘,台中坐月子中心,搬家公司,搬家,搬家,搬家公司,線上客服,網頁設計,線上客服,網頁設計,網頁設計,土地貸款,免費資源,電腦教學,wordpress,人工植牙,關鍵字,關鍵字,seo,seo,網路排名,自然排序,網路排名軟體,

Anonymous said...

^^ nice blog!! ^@^

徵信, 徵信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 感情挽回, 婚姻挽回, 挽回婚姻, 挽回感情, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信, 捉姦, 徵信公司, 通姦, 通姦罪, 抓姦, 抓猴, 捉猴, 捉姦, 監聽, 調查跟蹤, 反跟蹤, 外遇問題, 徵信, 捉姦, 女人徵信, 女子徵信, 外遇問題, 女子徵信, 徵信社, 外遇, 徵信公司, 徵信網, 外遇蒐證, 抓姦, 抓猴, 捉猴, 調查跟蹤, 反跟蹤, 感情挽回, 挽回感情, 婚姻挽回, 挽回婚姻, 外遇沖開, 抓姦, 女子徵信, 外遇蒐證, 外遇, 通姦, 通姦罪, 贍養費, 徵信, 徵信社, 抓姦, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信公司, 女人徵信, 外遇

徵信, 徵信網, 徵信社, 徵信網, 外遇, 徵信, 徵信社, 抓姦, 徵信, 女人徵信, 徵信社, 女人徵信社, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 女人徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社,

徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 離婚, 離婚,

徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 征信, 征信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 征信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信

cvxv said...

看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,美髮儀器,美髮,儀器,髮型,EMBA,MBA,學位,EMBA,專業認證,認證課程,博士學位,DBA,PHD,在職進修,碩士學位,推廣教育,DBA,進修課程,碩士學位,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,課程介紹,學分班,文憑,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,日式料理, 台北居酒屋,日本料理,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,台北結婚,場地,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,造型系列,學位,SEO,婚宴,捷運,學區,美髮,儀器,髮型,看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,房子,捷運,學區,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,學位,碩士學位,進修,在職進修, 課程,教育,學位,證照,mba,文憑,學分班,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,場地,結婚,場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,場地,居酒屋,燒烤,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,小套房,小套房,進修,在職進修,留學,證照,MBA,EMBA,留學,MBA,EMBA,留學,進修,在職進修,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,PMP,在職專班,研究所在職專班,碩士在職專班,PMP,證照,在職專班,研究所在職專班,碩士在職專班,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,EMBA,MBA,PMP,在職進修,專案管理,出國留學,EMBA,MBA,PMP,在職進修,專案管理,出國留學,EMBA,MBA,PMP,在職進修,專案管理,出國留學,婚宴,婚宴,婚宴,婚宴,漢高資訊,漢高資訊,比利時,比利時聯合商學院,宜蘭民宿,台東民宿,澎湖民宿,墾丁民宿,花蓮民宿,SEO,找工作,汽車旅館,阿里山,日月潭,阿里山民宿,東森購物,momo購物台,pc home購物,購物漢高資訊,漢高資訊,在職進修,漢高資訊,在職進修,民宿,民宿,整形,造型,室內設計,室內設計,漢高資訊,在職進修,漢高資訊,在職進修,民宿,美容,室內設計,在職進修,羅志祥,周杰倫,五月天,民宿,民宿,整形,整形,室內設計,室內設計,比利時聯合商學院,在職進修,比利時聯合商學院,在職進修,漢高資訊,找工作,找工作,找工作,找工作,找工作,蔡依林,林志玲

Newer Post Older Post